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Facial pain disorders are caused by inflammation or irritation of the nerves. Neuralgias (such as trigeminal neuralgia) belong to this category, however there are other facial pain disorders that may have less well-defined origins. Persistent idiopathic facial pain Persistent idiopathic facial pain (PIFP) refers to persistent facial...

Psychiatric disorders & headache have a complex relationship, as people with psychiatric disorders (such as depression, anxiety, PTSD, etc) often experience headache as a comorbidity. However, it is not always apparent if there is a strictly causal relationship between the two problems, and normally it...

Rhinosinusitis headache, also called 'sinus headache', occurs due to increased pressure or inflammation in the sinuses. This can be triggered by allergies, an acute sinus infection, or ongoing sinus problems (which can cause chronic headache). The headache is exacerbated if pressure is applied to the...

Cervicogenic headache is caused by disorders affecting the top of the spine, regarding either the bony, disc, or soft tissue elements. Most of the time it is accompanied by neck pain, and the range of neck motion is limited, but this is not always the...

Intracranial infections, such as meningitis, encephalitis, and brain abscesses, may cause headache, nausea, fever, neck stiffness, and changes in neurological state (e.g., confusion, reduced consciousness). These serious brain infections may be caused by fungal, parasitic, viral, or bacterial causes. Thankfully, vaccines exist for many of...

Severe headache is one of the main symptoms of Chiari malformation, in which a part of the brain tissue extends into the spinal canal. The headache normally happens after coughing/straining and is located at the back of the head towards the neck. The pain generally...

Headache can be triggered by epileptic seizures, either during the seizure or shortly after it. They resolve spontaneously within a few days of the seizure ending. In some types of epilepsy (frontal lobe, temporal lobe, or occipital lobe), headaches after a seizure (post-ictal headache) are...

Blood vessel disorders can cause headaches because the blood vessels stretch, leak blood into the brain, or create pressure on brain cells. Aneurysm-related headache and headache caused by associated disorders often have a thunderclap onset. Some of the main disorders associated with these types of...

Many diseases related to blood vessels in the brain can cause headache, including stroke. There are two main types of stroke – ischaemic and haemorrhagic strokes.  Both types involve some kind of disruption to blood flow in the brain, and result in permanent tissue damage....

A frequently-recurring headache type that often happens at the same time at night while people are sleeping (leading them to also being called ‘alarm clock headaches’). This headache pain then wakes people up, and can last from 15 minutes up to four hours after waking....

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